Rice production requires complex irrigation and collective farming, which led to the development of a strong sense of community in Vietnamese villages. This was the beginning of a long Chinese occupation and domination.
Despite more than a millennium of Chinese occupation, the Vietnamese retained a strong and separate identity. were led by women), but none found lasting success until the tenth century Emperor Dinh Bo Linh called this new state Dai Co Viet (the Kingdom of the Watchful Hawk) and won Chinese recognition of independence with regular payments of tribute.
Again the Vietnamese revolted and won independence under Le Loi, a Vietnamese cultural hero.
This independence lasted for the next four hundred years.
There were numerous revolts against the Chinese (two of the most legendary in 40A. In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, the Vietnamese themselves became expansionists and they conquered Champa, an Indianized kingdom in central Vietnam.
This campaign depleted the Vietnamese kingdom's resources, and they again fell to the Chinese, this time to the harsh rule of the Ming dynasty.
Their descendants formed the diverse mountainous tribes. The first Vietnamese believed they were the descendants of a dragon and an angel.